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About

  • Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories.
  • Canada extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean.
  • Canada is the world’s second-largest country by total area, spanning over 9.9 million square kilometers.
  • It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level.
  • Canada’s population is about 34.4 million as of 2011
  • Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal state with a democratic parliament.
  • Canada is a member of many international organizations including NATO, OSCE, OAS and APEC.
  • Ottawa is the Capital of Canada
  • The majority of Canadians are Christians. Other religions in Canada include Protestantism, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism.

 

HISTORY

  • The first Europeans to reach Canada were the Vikings in 1001.
  • In 1497, the English King Henry VII sent an Italian named Jean Cabot on an expedition across the Atlantic to Newfoundland.
  • From 1534 to 1536, a Frenchman named Jacques Cartier sailed on two expeditions to Canada. On August 10th 1535, he sailed into the St Lawrence River, which he named after the saint.
  • In 1603 a Frenchman named Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed up the St Lawrence River. In 1608 Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec.
  • In 1642 the French founded Montreal. The new colony in Canada was called New France. By 1685 the population of New France was about 10,000. By 1740 it was 48,000.
  • In 1610 Henry Hudson discovered Hudson Bay.
  • In 1631 Thomas James led another expedition. James Bay is named after him.
  • In 1629 the English captured Quebec. However it was returned to France in 1632.
  • In 1670 the English founded the Hudson Bay Company. The company was given exclusive rights to trade with the inhabitants of the Hudson Bay area. They traded with the natives for skins and furs.
  • Rivalry between the British and the French in Canada continued. During the Seven Years War (1756-1763) the two nations fought for control of Canada. By 1763 the French were forced to surrender all their territories in Canada to Britain by the Treaty of Paris.
  • After the American Revolutionary War, about 40,000 Americans who remained loyal to Britain migrated from the newly independent country to Canada.
  • Alexander Mackenzie travelled from Great Slave Lake along the Mackenzie River and reached the Arctic Ocean in 1789. In 1793 he crossed the continent by land and reached the Pacific.
  • During the American War of 1812 the Americans invaded Canada but they were repulsed.
  • In 1834, William Lyon Mackenzie became the first Mayor of Toronto.
  • Canada finally gained democratic government in 1867 when Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were federated as the Dominion of Canada. Canada then had a strong central government, which ruled from Ottawa, the new capital.
  • The first prime minister of Canada was Sir John Macdonald.
  • Manitoba was made a province in 1870. British Columbia joined the confederation in 1871. Alberta and Saskatchewan joined in 1905.
  • A transcontinental railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed in 1885.
  • In 1896 gold was found in the Klondike district of the Yukon and a gold rush ensued.
  • More than 60,000 Canadians died in the First World War.
  • During World War II, 45,000 Canadians were killed.
  • In the early 1980s Canada suffered a deep recession and unemployment rose to 11%. There was another recession in the early 1990s. Yet Canada recovered and today it is a prosperous nation.
  • In 1999 North West Territories was divided into two and a new territory called Nunavut was created.


FACTS

    • At 6050 m above sea level, Mount Logan in the Yukon is Canada’s tallest peak.
    • Great Bear lake is the largest lake in Canada with an area of 31 326 km2
    • The longest river is the Mackenzie River flowing 4241 km through the NWT.
    • There are more than 100 national parks and historic sites in Canada.
    • The National emblem is the maple leaf and has been associated with Canada since the 1700’s.
    • The flag of Canada has two red bars and a white center – within there being a maple leaf. It was adopted as the National Flag in 1965. (Before hand Canada used the Union Jack – the British Flag for its flag.)
    • The National Anthem for Canada is “O Canada” – proclaimed on July 1st 1980 – a century after being sung for the first time. (Before hand Canadians sang God Save the Queen/King)
    • The life expectancy of a Canadian woman is 80 years and a Canadian man is 73 years
    • The size of the average family is 3.1 people, including 1.3 children
    • Canada has one of the world’s highest living standards. In 1991: 83 % of households had 1 car, 97.5 had color televisions and 1 out of 5 had a computer.
    • Canadians consume more macaroni and cheese than any other nation on earth.
    • Canada’s groundhog, Wiarton Willie, is an albino groundhog from Wiarton, Ontario.
    • There haven’t been mail deliveries on Saturday in Canada for the past 35 years.
    • The oldest person in Canada was Marie-Louise Meilleur. She was born in Kamouraska, Quebec on August 29, 1880 and died on April 16, 1998 at age 117.
    • Hockey and lacrosse are Canada’s national sports.

Avg. Costs

Rent – Bachelor Apartment (One room apartment, one month, large city) – $700-$1200

Rent – Bachelor Apartment (One room apartment, one month, small city/town) – $500-$700

Cell phone package (One month) – $40-$100

Groceries for one person (One month) – $250-$300

One dozen eggs – $2-$3

Bus fare one way (local) – $2.25

Local telephone call – $0.50

Fast food meal (Hamburger, French fries, soft drink) – $4-$6

Average restaurant meal – $10-$25 per person

Coffee from specialty coffee shop – $1.70

Admission to nightclub – $0-$15

Movie – $8-$13

Pair of jeans – $40-$80

Pair of running shoes – $60-$200

Return flight from Vancouver to Toronto – $300-$1200

Letter within Canada – $0.50

International postage (letter) – $1.45

Total Tower Experience at CN Tower (all ages) – $36

ROM Museum Entrance Fee – $20

Currency

Information is coming soon.

Safety

  • Safety in Canada is not usually a problem, and some basic common sense will go a long way.
  • Even in the largest cities, violent crime is not a serious problem, and very few people are ever armed.
  • Even though major urban areas are experiencing higher than average rates it should be noted that these rates still remain extremely low compared to similar sized urban areas in the United States and the rest of the world.
  • If you are unfortunate enough to get your purse or wallet snatched, the local police will do whatever they can to help. Often, important identification is retrieved after thefts of this sort.
  • Bike theft can be a common nuisance in metropolitan areas.
  • Canada is very prone to winter storms (including ice storms and blizzards). Driving is all right so long as you are slow, conscious of other drivers and paying attention but if you can, take transit. It’s best to carry an emergency kit, in case you have no choice but to spend the night stuck in snow on the highway.
  • Unlike the US, Canada’s had no constitutional rights relating to gun ownership. Possession, purchase, and use of any firearms require proper licenses for the weapons and the user, and is subject to federal laws.

Climate

  • Canada is often associated with cold weather and snow, but in reality, its climate is as diverse as its landscape.
  • Generally, Canadians enjoy four very distinct seasons, particularly in the more populated regions along the US border.
  • Daytime summer temperatures can rise to 35°C and higher, while lows of -25°C are not uncommon in winter. More moderate temperatures are the norm in spring and fall.
  • Summers can be hot and dry on the prairies, humid in central Canada, and milder on the coasts.
  • Winters are generally cold with periods of snow, although southern Alberta enjoys the occasional “Chinook”, a warm dry wind from the Rocky Mountains that gusts through and melts the snow.
  • Winters are mild and wet on the west coast, in cities such as Vancouver and Victoria.

Places to See


The Canadian Rockies

The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, extending Alberta to British Columbia. The southern end borders Idaho and Montana of the USA. The northern end is at the Liard River in northern British Columbia. This natural beauty spot houses five national parks, four of which (Banff, Jasper, Kootenay and Yoho) make up the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage site. You will see stunning landscapes comprising of peaks, glaciers, lakes, waterfalls, canyons and caves.

 

 

Niagara Falls

The Niagara Falls are voluminous waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the border between Ontario and New York.  On the Canadian side, Queen Victoria Park offers platforms with spectacular views of the falls, and underground walkways that lead into observation rooms which give the illusion of being within the falling waters. Horseshoe Falls and the adjacent American Falls along with the small Bridal Veil Falls combined form the highest flow rate of any waterfall in the world and has a vertical drop of more than 165 feet (50 m). While in the city of Niagara Falls, you will also see spectacular gardens, the Whirlpool Aero Car, casinos, and Clifton Hill, a major tourist promenade.

 

 

Cabot Trail, Nova Scotia

The Cabot Trail is a highway and scenic roadway in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It is located in northern Victoria County and Inverness County on Cape Breton Island. The route measures 298 km (185 mi) in length and completes a loop around the northern tip of the island, passing along and through the scenic Cape Breton Highlands. It is named after the explorer John Cabot who landed in Atlantic Canada in 1497. The trail passes through many charming communities, each with breathtaking scenery and unforgettable hospitality. Whilst on the trail take the time to hike in the Cape Breton Highlands National Park, go whale watching, visit the museums and galleries and sample some of the finest seafood in the world.

 

 

Baffin Island

Baffin Island is an extremely remote spot, located in the Arctic Ocean of Northern Canada.  It is located in the Canadian territory of Nunavut and is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world. Baffin Island is named after English explorer William Baffin. The island offers visitors unique experiences such as viewing polar bears, catching a glimpse of the Northern Lights, and kayaking between ice flows.  Whether you’re looking for an out-of-the-way adventure or a relaxing break in remotest Northern Canada, Baffin Island has it all.

 

 

Vancouver

Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.4 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country (after Toronto and Montreal), and the most populous in Western Canada. Check out some outdoor theatre at ‘Bard on the Beach’, enjoy some aesthetic treats at an art gallery, or do some serious damage to your credit card in the shops. Vancouver’s cultural diversity is reflected in the range of restaurants, bars, pubs and nightclubs available.

 

 

Old Quebec City

The Québec City area is the perfect destination for a cultural reconnaissance, with a museum or theatre on every corner, featuring displays from mummies and music to war and watercolours. After a tough day of trekking the tourist trail, head to one of the many low-key bars or relaxing restaurants to sample some Canadian culinary treats.

 

 

Toronto

Canada’s most populated city attracts millions of visitors a year with good reason. The city has attractions that span the modern to the historical and the cultural to the commercial.The city’s most prominent landmark is the CN Tower, which once stood as the tallest free-standing land structure in the world at 553 metres (1,814 ft). The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) is a major museum for world culture and natural history. The Toronto Zoo, one of the largest in the world, is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 distinct species. The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a large collection of Canadian, European, African and contemporary artwork, and also plays host to exhibits from museums and galleries all over the world. Packed with buzzing bars, top-notch restaurants and live music venues, it’s certainly got a strong claim to the crown of Canada’s party capital

 

 

Ottawa

Ottawa is the capital of Canada. It is the second largest city in the Province of Ontario and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario. The Changing of the Guard on Parliament Hill or the RCMP march are always popular sights, along with some world class museums. There are also many parks and bike paths that make summer outdoors fun. The winters aren’t bad either. The Rideau Canal, which connects the Ottawa River to the Great Lakes for leisure boaters, makes for the longest skating rink in the world when it freezes.

 

 

Churchill, Manitoba

Churchill, Manitoba is a small town in northern Manitoba on the shores of the Hudson Bay. The town is the Polar Bear Capital of the World (sightings are year round), Beluga Whale Capital of the World (sightings from late June to late August), and one of the best places to catch a glimpse of an Aurora Borealis or Northern-Lights (sightings from late November through to late March). No-one ever forgets a visit to Churchill. It’s the best place to connect to the many wonders of Mother Nature.

Etiquette

Etiquette is coming soon.

Contributions (5)

  • [email protected] says...

    Where do I find the $5 off coupon?

    Posted on Thursday, June 7th 2012 at 12:14 pm

  • krista says...

    Upon signing up for The World Book, you should be emailed the $5 coupon to the email which you registered with. Please check your junk/spam email as a few of our customers have found that their coupons have been delivered there. Thank you for viewing The World Book!

    Posted on Friday, June 8th 2012 at 10:22 am

  • [email protected] says...

    Excellent

    Posted on Saturday, September 22nd 2012 at 5:27 pm

  • [email protected] says...

    Very helpful and informative!

    Posted on Wednesday, November 28th 2012 at 10:21 pm

  • kylep says...

    This definitely helped… and I live here!

    Posted on Wednesday, June 25th 2014 at 1:44 pm

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