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About

Sydney Harbour Bridge

Sydney Harbour Bridge

  • Australia is a continent in the Southern hemisphere
  • It is the smallest continent but sixth-largest country
  • It is bordered to the west by the Indian Ocean and to the east by the South Pacific Ocean
  • The continent of Australia is approximately equal in area to the United States
  • Mountain ranges run from north to south along the east coast, reaching their highest point in Mount Kosciusko
  • The western half of the continent is occupied by a desert plateau that rises
  • The Great Barrier Reef, lies along the northeast coast extending about 2,000 km
  • Most of the population is concentrated along the eastern and south-eastern coasts
  • Australia is world famous for its natural wonders, wide open spaces, and the outback
  • Australia is one of the world’s most highly developed countries
  • It is also well known for its large cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth.
  • The island of Tasmania is located off the Southeast coast.

HISTORY

  • The first inhabitants of Australia were the Aborigines, who migrated there at least 40,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. There were believed to be about a half million to a full million Aborigines at the time of European settlement; today about 350,000 live in Australia.
  • Dutch, Portuguese, and Spanish ships sighted Australia in the 17th century. The Dutch landed at the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1606. In 1616, the country became known as New Holland.
  • The British arrived in 1688.
  • It was not until Captain James Cook’s voyage in 1770 that Great Britain claimed possession of the island, calling it New South Wales. In 1788, a British colony was set up at Port Jackson, what is now Sydney. About 161,000 transported English convicts were settled there until the system was suspended in 1839.
  • Six colonies were established – New South Wales (1786), Tasmania (1825), Western Australia (1829), South Australia (1834), Victoria (1851), and Queensland (1859).
  • The six colonies became states and in 1901 federated into the Commonwealth of Australia with a constitution that integrated British parliamentary and U.S. federal traditions.


FACTS

  • There are 1500 species of Australian spiders
  • Australia has over 6000 species of flies, about 4000 species of ants, and there are about 350 species of termites in Australia
  • Australia has the world’s largest population of wild camels with one hump
  • There are more than 150 million sheep in Australia, and only some 20 million people
  • No part of Australia is more than 1000 km from the ocean and a beach
  • Australia has the world’s largest cattle ranch. At 30,028 km2 it is almost the same size as Belgium.
  • Population density in Australia is usually calculated in km2 per person, not people per km2
  • Australians have 380,000 m2 per person available. Yet well over 90% are cramming into coastal cities.
  • Tasmania has the cleanest air in the world.
  • The Great Barrier Reef has a mailbox. You can ferry out there and send a postcard, stamped with the only Great Barrier Reef stamp.
  • The Australian Alps, or Snowy Mountains as they are also known, receive more snow than Switzerland.
  • Melbourne has the second largest Greek population in the world after Athens
Shipwreck Coast Panorama

Shipwreck Coast Panorama

Avg. Costs

  • Cup of coffee $3.50
  • Full cooked breakfast $19
  • McDonald’s combo $7
  • Big Mac costs $4.50
  • Large pizza $6
  • Fillet steak meal $30-35
  • Glass of wine $8
  • Beer in pub $6-8, Guiness $8-10
  • Car rental, sightseeing and staying in a hotel – $100-160 per day
  • Australia Zoo, Beerwah – Adult $58, Student $46, Child $34, Family $180-190
  • Perth Zoo, South Perth – Adult $21, Seniors $17, Children $10.50, Family $55
  • Australia Museum, Canberra – Adult $10, Child $5, Family $22
  • A basic takeaway meal – a burger, fancy sandwich, or couple of slices of pizza would cost $5-10
  • Sausage roll for $2.50
  • A takeaway pizza from Pizza Hut big enough to feed two costs around $10
  • A cafe meal – $10-$15
  • Main course in a restaurant – $15 and up
  • A middy/pot (285ml) of house beer will cost you around $4
  • Glass of house wine around $6 in a low end pub
  • To take away, a case of 24 cans of beer will cost around $35, or a bottle of wine around $8

Currency

Information is coming soon.

Safety

  • Emergency number – 000
  • While driving keep a sense of perspective. Tourists are far more likely to be killed or injured as pedestrians, drivers or passengers on Australian roads than all the other causes of death and injury combined
  • Around 10-20 overseas travellers drown in Australia each year. Most of these drownings occur at ocean beaches, where statistics put visitors at significantly higher risk than locals
  • Beach goers should swim between the red and yellow flags which designate patrolled areas. Beaches are not patrolled 24-hours a day or even during all daylight hours.

Climate

Australia Waterfall

Australia Waterfall

  • Australia has a wide variation of climates found across the continent
  • Most of the country receives more than 3,000 hours of sunshine a year
  • Generally, the north is hot and tropical, while south tends to be sub-tropical and temperate
  • Most rainfall is around the coast
  • Temperatures in some southern regions can drop below freezing in winter and the Snowy Mountains in the South East experiences meters of winter snow
  • As Australia is in the southern hemisphere, the winter is from June-August while December-February is summer. The winter is the dry season in the tropics, and the summer is the wet.

Places to See

Great Ocean Road

  • About 3 hours from Melbourne, following the coast and the mountains
  • The erosion caused by the sea and winds created giant monoliths of rock, called The 12 Apostles

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Kakadu National Park

  • Close to Darwin, one of the most beautiful National Parks in Australia
  • It has plenty of wildlife, native plants and aboriginal paintings
  • Also a sight to see is Jim Jim Falls, it is a 200m high waterfall believed to have formed 140 million years ago

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Hamelin Pool Marine Nature Reserve

  • World heritage site located in Western Australia
  • It has an area of 1270km2, of living marine stromatolites

 

 

 Kata Tjuta

  • A group of 36 large domed rock formations located in the Northern Territory
  • Also known as Mount Olga

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Great Barrier Reef

  • State icon of Queensland
  • The largest coral reef in the world
  • Compromised of more than 2900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 3000km
  • The reef, located in the Coral Sea is visible from outer space

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Fraser Island

  • One of the most distinctive islands in the world
  • It is the world’s largest sand island with an area of 1840km2

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Uluru
Uluru

 

 

 

Uluru

  • One of the world’s most impressive and most popular rock formations
  • This large sandstone rock formation is located in the Northern Territory of Australia
  • This site is sacred to the aboriginal people in this area
  • Uluru has springs, ancient paintings, rock caves and waterhole

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ANZAC Bridge

  • Large cable-stayed bridge that spans Johnstons Bay
  • It is the largest cable-stayed bridge in Australia, and one of the largest in the world
  • It measures 32.2m wide and 345m long

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Eureka Tower

  • Located in Melbourne
  • Tallest residential tower in the world when measured to its highest floor

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Sydney Opera House
Sydney Opera House

 

 

 

Sydney Tower

  • Tallest free standing structure in the city
  • It is the second tallest free standing structure in Australia
  • The second tallest observation tower in the Southern Hemisphere
  • It rises 309m above the Sydney business district

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Blue Mountains

  • The Blue Mountains is a mountainous region in New South Wales, Australia.
  • It borders on Sydney’s metropolitan area, its foothills starting approximately 50 kilometers (31 mi) west of the state capital.
  • The Greater Blue Mountains Area consists of 1.03 million ha of sandstone plateau, escarpments and gorges dominated by temperate eucalypt forest.
  • The site is comprised of eight protected areas.
  • The site provides significant representation of Australia’s biodiversity with ten percent of the vascular flora as well as significant numbers of rare or threatened species.
  • The Edge Cinema offers visitors a panoramic view of the Blue Mountains.
  • The Giant Staircase walking track runs down a cliff into the Jamison Valley, near the Three Sisters, providing access to nature walks through the valley.

Etiquette

COMMUNICATION ETIQUETTE

Shaking hands when meeting and leaving is very common. The people of Australia are very friendly and open. When attending a formal or informal party it is expected to bring small gifts of wine, chocolates or other Australian delicacies. Australians appreciate humor and often tend to be quite humorous themselves.

BUSINESS ETIQUETTE

Australians are very direct and to the point, they do not need long relationships before they are willing to do business. It is appreciated to arrive on time, or even a few minutes early to meetings or appointments. Australians are very to the point and direct, even in negotiations. There is very little small talk before serious negotiating. They also expect little bargaining. They expect your initial offer to have small margin for negotiation.
Business dress is conservative in the major cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. Men wearing dark colored conservative business suits and women wearing a business suit or dress. It is customary for business cards to be exchanged at the initial introduction. Australians take punctuality very seriously so arrive early.

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